Site note: The modern spelling of the old English Westmoreland is Westmorland. The early settlers in America carried with them the name and in America it retains the letter 'e' as Westmoreland.
Lineal ancestor, King Edward III of England, married (1328) Philippa of Hainault who was also his second cousin. Philippa's father was William the Good, Count of Holland and Hainault. Her mother was Countess Joan, sister of Philip VI of Valois. She was, like Edward's mother, a granddaughter of Philip III of France. Their son Edmund, Duke of York, married (1372) Isabella of Castile and Richard, Earl of Cambridge, son of that marriage, married (c.1406) Anne Mortimer. Richard, Duke of York, their son, married (c.1438) ancestor, Cecily Neville.
Cecily Neville's nephew was Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (1428-1471) who has been nicknamed 'the Kingmaker'.
Through his grandfather, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, he had connections with the house of Lancaster. Through his wife, Anne de Beauchamp, he inherited the Earldom of Warwick and the vast Beauchamp estates. Thus by virtue of his family and lands, Warwick was the most powerful noble in England and the principal baronial figure in the Wars of the Roses.
He supported Richard of York in his bid for the protectorship of Henry VI (1454) and took up arms when York lost his office. Warwick was largely responsible for the Yorkist victory at the first battle of St. Albans (1455) and was appointed to the strategic post of governor of Calais. In 1459 when fighting broke out again, York, Salisbury, and Warwick were forced to flee the country, but in 1460 they returned and captured the King at the battle of Northampton.
The Queen, Margaret of Anjou, raised an army in the north, defeated and killed York and Salisbury at Wakefield (1460), and defeated Warwick and recaptured Henry at the second battle of St. Albans (1461). But York's son, Edward, won the battle of Mortimer's Cross (1461), entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV.
Richard Neville's father was Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury (b.1400 k.1460)
Salisbury was the architect behind the Neville family's rise to power. He engineered a series of brilliant marriages for his brothers, sisters, sons and daughters so that no other noble house could compete with the junior house of Neville. But this brought resentment from others, particularly the Percy family who were the Nevilles' main rivals in the North. The Neville/Percy feud helped spark the violence of the Wars of the Roses.
1420/4, Richard was Warden of the West March toward Scotland. In 1425, while serving as Constable of Pontefract, he married Alice de Montacute, heiress to the Earl of Salisbury. In 1429 Richard was created Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife. He served as proxy for the Duke of Bedford at Henry VI's coronation. During 1429/30, he went on an embassy to Scotland. In 1431, he served in France. 1432/3 found Richard Warden of the West March again and rewarded with the office of Keeper of the Forests North of the Trent. In 1434, he was made sole Warden of the Northern Marches but resigned a year later. 1436 found him in France again with the Duke of York.
In 1440, he was in conflict with the senior branch of the Nevilles over estates in Durham and Yorkshire in his mother's jointure. The Court intervened in Salisbury's favour and the Earl of Westmorland was permanently impoverished by this result. In 1447, Salisbury helped arrest Duke Humphrey of Gloucester at Bury St. Edmunds. In 1452, he sided with the Court against York and helped persuade York to lay down his arms at Dartford. But in 1453, he was permanently alienated by King Henry's attempt to give the Lordship of Glamorgan to the Duke of Somerset. (Glamorgan was considered part of the Earldom of Warwick.) Salisbury was also told to keep his sons in order after clashes with the Percy family.
Salisbury became Chancellor in York's first protectorate in 1454 but was replaced in 1455 when the King recovered. Salisbury and Warwick both fought with York against the Court at St. Albans. 1457 saw more Percy/Neville conflict. In 1458, Salisbury paid his share of the wergild for those killed at St. Albans. This was followed by "Loveday", Salisbury being paired with Somerset.
At Blore Heath, in 1459, Salisbury defeated a larger force under Lord Audley but fled Ludford Bridge to Calais with his son the Earl of Warwick and the Earl of March, York's heir. Along with the other rebels, he was attainted by the Parliament of Devils. In 1460, Salisbury landed at Sandwich with Warwick. He held London for the Yorkists during the Northampton campaign. Going North with York at Christmas, he was captured at Wakefield and beheaded.
Lineal ancestor, King Edward IV of England (the son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville) married (1464) Elizabeth Woodville (pictured). Their daughter, the Princess Elizabeth of York, married (1486) King Henry VII (Henry Tudor). (Click on the Tudor Rose)
Additional family background - (Click on the shamrock) - the Smyth family (of Ireland) which originated in Durham and Yorkshire and was granted the lease of Rosedale Abbey by the Neville family ...
See also The Neville Lineage - and a strange genealogical coincidence ...