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Edward III to Henry VII

From Richard, Duke of York to Henry VII


From the 1924 publication of E. M. G. Routh's work, "Lady Margaret Beaufort, a Memoir" which places the political background to and the key players in this struggle in context.

"... the peaceful course of events was interrupted by one of the insurrections which disturbed the first part of Henry's reign, and the rebellion planned by the various malcontents who put forward the boy Lambert Simnel as Pretender to the Throne came to a head in Ireland.

The Irish, although not very clear whether the claimant was supposed to be one of Edward's sons (who had been murdered) or the Duke of Clarence's son (who was in the Tower) nevertheless crowned him King of England in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, with great enthusiasm, and a number of Irishmen, with some Germans, invaded England to try to put him on the throne.

The King was in the Midlands when news of the rising reached him, and he wrote the following letter to the Earl of Ormond, from Kenilworth.

'By the King.

'Right trusty and right well-beloved cousin, we greet you well, and have tidings that our rebels landed the fifth day of this month in our land of Ireland. Wherefore, and for as much as we have sent for our dearest wife and for our dearest mother to come unto us, and that we would have your advice and counsel also in such matters as we have to do for the subduing of our said rebels, we pray you that, giving your due attendance upon our said dearest wife and lady mother, you come with them unto us; not failing hereof as you purpose to do us pleasure. Given under our signet at our Castle of Kenilworth the 13th day of May.

'To our right trusty and right well-beloved cousin the Earl of Ormond, chamberlain to our dearest wife the Queen.'

The Earl of Derby, owing to his close connexion with the royal family, was little affected by Henry VII's policy of breaking down the power of the baronage in order to build up that of the Crown, and although extensive social changes were taking place he was one of the few great nobles who remained prominent among the ruins of feudalism. He was usually addressed by the King in public documents as 'our dearest relative', and once at least as 'oure right entierly beloved fader Therle of Derby He and his wife between them had immense wealth and influence and their vast possessions entailed a great deal of business; they had lands in many places and lived sometimes at the earl's estates of Knowsley and Lathom and at Lady Margaret's manor of Woking."

Further in formation on the lineage of the Earls of Derby - the family Ferrers and beyond - "the title was first adopted by the Ferrers family under a creation of 1139."

Site Note - A Smythe of the same family? Sir Edward Smythe (d. 1682) of Whitchurch, Bucks. was a Judge of the Common Pleas in Ireland and in the service of an Ormond of his era. Sir Edward Smythe of Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire - Lord Chief Justice of IrelandSir Edward Smythe of Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire - a Lord Chief Justice of Ireland - Sir Edward Smythe died in February 1682 and is remembered by a plaque set into the floor of the aisle of St. John the Baptist Church. His son was also named Edward whose wife is named as Mary. Edward and Mary Smythe had a daughter (baptised at the church) Sarah Spencer Smythe. Also remembered in the church is Lucius Smythe. The Smythe property was sold to a member of the Reynolds family towards the end of the seventeenth century.

From Henry VII to Frances Brandon

Jane SeymourFrom a history of the Seymours

"Sir Henrie Seymour, Knyght, married Barbara, daughter of Thomas Morgan.  [Children] Thomas, Lorde Seymour, of Sudeley, Highe Admirall of Englande, who maryd Katherine [Parr], Queene of Englande, and wydowe to Kynge Henrie the Eight.  One other John and Anthony who dyed in their infancy.  Jane Queene of Englande, Wyfe to Kynge Henrie the Eight, and mother to Kynge Edwarde the Sixt.  Elizabeth, firste marryd to Sir Henrye Ughtred, after to Gregory, Lorde Cromwell, and last to John, Lorde Seint John of Basings, after Marquesse of Winchester.  Margerie, who dyed in her infancy, and Dorothe, maryed to Sir Clement Smythe, knyght."Henry VIII - oil on wood panel - private collection.

The Seymours held Wolf Hall in Wiltshire - a favourite hunting venue (!) of Henry VIII. Edward Seymour (brother of Jane Seymour, third wife (died) of Henry VIII) became the "Protector Somerset" who - from 1547 - virtually 'ruled' England during the first years of Edward VI's reign. He was eventually beheaded in January, 1552.

In his entries for 1576, Camden writes: "In the Netherlands all things were now most confused, whilest the Spaniards without authoritie thrust certaine Counsailors of the Estates into prison, and committed all outrages against the Country, rifeling their goods and doing them all kindes of injuries, in such sort that the Estates were driven of necessitie to take armes. And forthwith they sent abroad their Messengers to all parts, and by Obigny signified the injuries to Queene Elizabeth, and the causes of their taking armes. The Queene by Doctor Wilson earnestly exhorteth both the Estates and the Spaniards to lay downe armes, and carefully searcheth out the causes why the Estates Counsailors were committed. In the meane time Andwerp, the most excellent of all Cities, which scarce yeelded to any the most flourishing Mart townes of all Europe, was miserably sacked by the Spaniards, the house of the English Marchants spoyled and rifeled, and they (though guiltlesse of all blame) constrained to pay the Souldiers a great summe of Gold for their ransome. Obigny, laying hold on this importunitie, importunately craved to borrow a great summe of money of Queene Elizabeth in the Estates name, to restraine such insolence of the Spaniards. The Queene, who had received certaine intelligence that they had formerly craved mony of the French King, denyed him, but promised to make most diligent intercession to the Spaniard for a peace. And in that behalfe she sent into Spaine Sir John Smith, cousin German to King Edward the sixth, a man of Spanish gesture, and well knowne to the Spaniard; who being most graciously entertained by the King, retorted with such wisedome the disgracefull injuries of Gaspar Quiroga Archbyshop of Toledo against the Queene in hatred of her religion, and of the Inquisitors of Civil [Seville], who allowed not the attribute of Defender of the Faith in the Queenes title, that he received thankes from the King, who was somewhat displeased with the Archbyshop, and prayed the Embassadour to conceale the matter from the Queene, and straightly commanded the said attribute to be admitted. For he knew the Queenes advice to be expedient for his affaires, though he followed it not, the fate of the Netherlands (if I may so speake) thrusting him forward to run another course"

Sir John Smith was the son of Jane Seymour's sister, Dorothy Seymour, who married Sir Clement Smythe. Cousin-german means a first cousin; closely related - of the first degree: full (as in brother, cousin). (See also germane - nearly related; relevant, appropriate.). Clement Smythe was of the Cressing Temple branch of the Smythe family - that of the Carrington/Smyth line.

A Clement Smythe was born in June 1551. He had no children and died in December 1590. His father was Thomas Smythe who married Mary Neville in Leicestershire in about 1554. This line of the family Neville can be traced back to 1000 CE and to Normandy. Mary Neville was a daughter of Thomas Neville and Clara Neville. His grandfather was John Smythe who had married Alice Woode. His great grandfather was also named (Sir) John Smythe - of Cressing Temple, in Essex - great grandmother thought to be Agnes Harwell. Sir John was the second Bt. and was born in about 1494. The first Bt. - Hugh Smythe, (wife Elizabeth) the father of this latter John, died in 1485. Clement Smythe's siblings were William Smythe, Mary Smythe Clare Smythe, Thomas Smythe or Neville (1555-1636) and Henry Smythe. The question of "Smythe or Neville" is raised elsewhere in relation to the Smyth families of Ireland researched on this site and in connection with William Smyth who had probably been educated at Knowsley (Derby Household) and who became Bishop of Lincoln. He was much favoured by Margaret Beaufort and her son, Henry Tudor. (qv Smythe Index - Bishop William Smith/Smyth - on this site.)

Clement Smythe had a sister named Clare - possibly a twin. (1551). It is interesting to note that there was a later generation Clare Smythe (unusual first name in Smythe genealogy) in the Smythe line of Acton Burnell. This Clare Smythe had a difficult life and was able to manage neither her own day-to-day life nor her financial affairs. More detail is available via Smythes of Acton Burnell - family of Maria "Fitzherbert" SmytheShropshire Smythe - of Acton Burnell - formerly of Durham. They were Catholics through several generations when it was dangerous to be so in England. See also the Smythe sections of the Shropshire archives.

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From - Visitation of Warwick and Leicester, confirmed by the Deputies of Camden, Clarenceux, to Francis Smyth, of Wooton, grandson of Sir John Smyth, and 5th in descent from John Carrington or Smith, died in 1446, who was 5th in descent from Sir Michael Carrington - Standard Bearer to King Richard I - died in the Holy Land.

Sir Michael Carrington, Standard Bearer to Richard I, in the Holy Land, had a grandson, Sir William Carrington, living during the reign of Edward I. This latter was the father of Sir Edmund Carrington who flourished in the reign of Edward II.

His son, Sir William Carrington, married in the time of Edward III, Lady Catherine, sister of William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, and had a son, Sir Thomas Carrington, who was a steward to Edward III.

According to Burke - "Sir Thomas Carrington married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Roos, and was father of John Carrington, who in the beginning of the reign of Richard II was forced to expatriate himself, and, after residing sometime abroad, to assume for security the very general surname of Smyth. "

He died in 1446, leaving, among other children, Hugh Smith, his heir, ancestor of the Smiths, Lords Carrington, which branch of the family became extinct in 1706. (See Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage) and Thomas Smyth of Rivenhall, whose great-great-great-grandson, Edward Smyth, of Iver, Bucks, married (LDS IGI states 10 September 1677 at St. John, Hackney, London) Frances Pennyman, daughter of William Pennyman of Normanby, in the county of York, and had seven sons and four daughters.

England: Canterbury - The Harleian Society. Allegations for Marriage Licences Issued by the Vicar: General of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1669 to 1679. Volume 34.  1677. County: General Country: England
10 Sep 1677 Edward Smith, of Ironmonger Lane, Lond., Gent., Bachr, abt 25, &
Frances Pennyman, of Hackney, co. Middx., Spr, abt 21, at own disp., her parents being dead; at Par. Ch. of Hackney, or St. Leonard, Shoreditch, co. Middx.

The fourth son, (all the others d. unm.) John Smyth, of Iver, Bucks, married (LDS IGI states 14th June 1716 at Iver in Buckinghamshire) Martha Bethel, daughter of Walter Bethel of Bristol and had three sons and two daughters: of the former, the eldest, The Rev. John Smith, rector of Ashwicken, in Norfolk, and of Henderclay, in Suffolk, married Mary Woodcock, daughter of (unknown) Woodcock, of Warwickshire, and died 17 Oct 1808, having had with two daughters, Mary and Anne, who died unm. an only son, John Carrington Smith.

Question: Names of the other two sons? Francis, Thomas or Richard?

John Carrington Smith of St. Margaret's in the county of Gloucester, was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for Gloucestershire and was a Lieutenant Colonel in the army. He was born 08 May 1766. He married 07 Aug 1799, the Hon. Charlotte Juliana Butler, daughter of the then Viscount Mountgarret, and sister of the Earl of Kilkenny. The sons of this marriage were Edmund Carrington Smith, Capt. in the army; John Somerset Smith, Capt. in the army, who died unmarried and Pierce Butler Smith, who also died unmarried. The daughters were Harriet Mary Smith, Charlotte Juliana Smith, and Anne Smith, all of whom were unmarried.

Lt. Col. John Carrington Smith - Arms: Quarterly; 1st and 4th arg. a cross gu. between four peacocks ppr; 2nd and 3rd arg. on a bend sa. six swords in saltier of the 1st. Crests-1st. A peacock's head erased, issuing out of a ducal coronet, 2nd an arm embowed in armour holding a sword. Motto: Spero Meliora. Estates - In London , Bucks., and Essex. Seat: St. Margaret's, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

These two articles, by David Simpson, are pertinent for the Smythe information supplied:

Secret worshippers who prayed in a 'farmhouse' by David Simpson

"The villages west of Durham City often owe their origins to the mining era but Esh Village or Old Esh as it is sometimes known dates to Anglo-Saxon times. Although it developed as an agricultural settlement it is often confused with the much larger mining village of Esh Winning that developed in the 1850s a mile to the south.
There is no direct road across the hills between Esh and Esh Winning and the little village's nearest neighbours are actually Langley Park and Quebec. In fact Old Esh is located in the council district of Derwentside, whilst Esh Winning is in Durham City.
Esh is an Anglo-Saxon name meaning Ash Tree and the spelling reflects the old Northumbrian dialect. There may have been a prominent ash tree here or an extensive woodland. Whatever the origin, Esh gave its name to a family called De Esh who resided here from medieval times to the reign of Henry VIII. Family members included Simon De Esh, a High Sheriff and Bailiff of Durham in the 1300s.
The Esh family's medieval residence is not known but Esh village church dedicated to St Michael probably stands on the site of the family's private chapel dating from 1283. On September 10, 1306, Edward I visited the church and said mass before heading north to fight the Scots, making an offering of 7 shillings before his departure. The church was rebuilt in the 1770s with further restoration in the 1850s. Only the lower walls of the church are thought to be ancient but the church does contain a medieval effigy of a costumed lady thought to be one of the De Eshes.
South of the church lies the walled village green with a solitary stone cross at its southern end inscribed with the mysterious letters I.H.S and dated 1687. It may stand on the site of an earlier medieval structure.
Just south of the Green is Esh Hall, erected by the Smythe family in the 1600s. The Smythes inherited Esh village and its surrounding land around 1560 when Margaret De Esh daughter of Anthony De Esh (last of the male line) married William Smythe, a member of a staunchly Roman Catholic family from Nunstainton near Sedgefield. The Smythes actively encouraged Catholicism in and around Esh during the Tudor era when Catholics were suppressed and although they lost their land for a time after 1569 it was later restored.
A place of Catholic worship had been established by the Smythes a mile south of Esh at Newhouse to serve the surrounding farms and it operated in secret during periods of Catholic suppression. It continued in use until about 1798 when its last priest Ferdinando Asmall died at the age of 103. Newhouse would later become the site of a Catholic Church serving the Irish community of the newly established colliery village of Esh Winning from 1871, but the original foundation had in the meantime moved to a new site.
The original Newhouse had fallen into ruin at about the time of Father Asmall's death and Sir Edward Smythe of Esh Hall wanted a new more accessible foundation. A slackening of laws restricting Catholicism and the establishment of the Catholic Ushaw College on land provided by the Smythes gave the family a new optimism and they wanted to establish a church in keeping with the neighbourhood's strong Catholic traditions. A new site at Esh Laude was chosen half a mile along the road west of Esh Village. Perhaps wary of past suppression, it was decided that the church should be built to resemble a farmhouse so as not to draw attention. Like its Anglican counterpart in Esh village, Esh Laude church was dedicated to St Michael and the building was constructed around a courtyard. It opened in 1800 and is the oldest church in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle.
Despite their involvement in the establishment of Esh Laude and Ushaw College the Smythes increasingly came to favour residence at their property of Acton Burnell in Shropshire. Surtees, the Durham historian writing in the 1820s described Esh Hall as deserted. In the 1850s the Smythes leased Esh and its hall to Henry Smith, a Catholic of Drax Abbey, near Selby Yorkshire for forty years and this had disastrous effects. Smith raised the rents of local farms, forcing many tenant farmers out and replacing them with new tenants from Yorkshire. The Yorkshire farmers, finding conditions difficult would later depart.
Smith's impact on Esh Hall had a much longer-lasting effect. By 1857 he had completely removed the old hall with its oak-panelled walls, great kitchen and welled staircase and replaced it with a new hall using material from the old. A priest's hiding place - a priest hole - was discovered during the demolition complete with vestments and sacramental vessels, a reminder of Catholic secrecy in times gone by.
Esh village has seen little growth in recent centuries compared to many Durham villages and still retains a rural charm. In the nineteenth century there was only very small-scale coal mining near the village, but there were two smithies and a Cartwright's shop. The Cross Keys pub, dates from the nineteenth century when it was notorious for cock fighting but stands on the site of an earlier thatched inn used by cattle drovers. The village saw slight growth along the road to the east in the late nineteenth century and further growth east and west of the green in the late twentieth century. It has been served by two schools - Catholic and Anglican since the nineteenth century and in this respect serves as a little centre for an extensive farming area just as it did in the days of old."

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If you have any memories of Durham City, Chester-le-Street, Derwentside or the Durham coast, including old photos or stories of people and places you would like to share with readers of The Northern Echo, write to David Simpson, Durham Memories, The Northern Echo, Priestgate, Darlington, DL1 1NFor email All photos will be returned.

A college of long-standing that moves with the times ...

"CONSTRUCTION of Ushaw College began in 1804 on land belonging to the Smythes, of Esh village, a Catholic family who had owned much land in the neighbourhood since the reign of Henry VIII. They took part in the Catholic rebellion called the Rising of the North in 1569, and although their land was confiscated, it was restored in 1609.
Sir Edward Smythe was no doubt happy to sell 200 acres of his land for the establishment of an important Catholic seminary.
In fact, Smythe property at Acton Burnell, Shropshire, was once used as a place of refuge for schoolmasters from Ushaw's forerunner at Douai College, in northern France.
When the French Revolution forced the college to relocate to England in the 1790s, about 40 students and teachers travelled north, where they eventually moved into the completed Ushaw College in 1808 ... "

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From the Combs family archives - with reference to Gloucestershire - and perhaps with connections to the Stratford families of Smith - contemporaries and friends of John and his son, William, Shakespeare ... via family Savage.

Site Note
The Smith/Smyths of Stratford-on-Avon - Shakespeare's friends and contemporaries ... This site states that a William Smith of Stratford had several sons - of whom two were named William. The younger William was a student at Winchester College and was nephew to John Watson, the then Bishop of Winchester, whose will was dated 1583. The Smith of Stratford site - linked above - states that the children of William Smith and Alice (Watson) (Savage) Smith were ...

Combs family archives ...

From "The History and Antiquities of Chipping Campden," 1911, Percy C. Rushen, The Manor of Chipping Campden:

"The STANLEY family obtained possession of this manor [at some time after 1508], how is not proven. Anne STANLEY brought this manor to Christopher SAVAGE and it was passed on to their son also named Christopher. By 1539 the whole of the manor estate was in the hands of Thomas SMITH."

The author also notes that Chipping Camden was divided into four equal parts in 1273, and that one part was later held by John MOLYNEUX "until his death 1473 leaving a daughter Cicely of 9 weeks, the estate was held in trust. Cicely married John JOSSELYN of High Rodyng in Essex, who held the manor upon her death in 1502." In another section, entitled "Men of Chipping Campden - "Ready to protect the county," Mr. Rushen writes:

"One Jno. SMITH, of North Nibley**, an industrious antiquary, compiled a list in 1608 of all men of this county who could bear arms and the armour that could be supplied by big men and parishes. The MSS. of this list is in the possession of Lord Sherborne, and as it constitutes such a detailed list of the inhabitants of Gloucestershire at the period, the part relating to this parish [Chipping Campden] is given below..." No COMBS or var. sp. were located in this source; however, there is mention of "Westington and Combe, whereof SMITH. gent., is lord."

* According to
About Chipping Campden, "Sir Baptist HICKS (1st Viscount Campden, a Jacobean Londoner who amased a vast fortune mainly by lending money to King James I) at a cost of L90, made it a donation to Moreton. Sir HICKS was at one time the Lord Mayor of London. He was buried in St James churchyard... The manor was burned by Royalist troops to stop it being sequestered by Parliament at the end of the Civil War. 1645 the Royalist troops billeted in the house. All that remains are the pavilions at either end, a small section of the frontage, the entrance gateways and some outbuildings "

** John SMITH of North Nibley, Gloucestershire, was somehow kin to Thomas SMITH of the London Company, in which the above noted John COMBE, Draper of London, and h/o Margaret ARCHDALE, invested in 1606 (See
Drapers Company and Early Combs &c. of Virginia) .

The Smyths of Nibley, Gloucestershire ... original line from Lincolnshire The Smyth family of Nibley in Gloucestershire - a line that originated in Lincolnshire, moving to Leicestershire and thence to Nibley in Gloucestershire. The writings of John Smyth (1568-1641) - born in Leicestershire - provide some of the most valuable historical records available in the modern era. He became Steward to the Berkeley family of Berkeley Castle and recorded that family's history and was also instrumental in settlement ventures, being a principal backer of plantations in the New World colony of Virginia. Many of his letters survive and may be found archived on the Internet. North Nibley (where the family had its home in Gloucestershire) nestles in the Cotswold Hills. Nibley House, the original Smyth home, is next to the church and dates from the 17th Century. Many of the family members were baptised or married at this church and several are buried there. Pedigree 1 | Pedigree 2 (courtesy Tim Powys-Lybbe)

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