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Anatomy

Referal

Masking

Tympanometry

more to be added...

ANATOMY SUMMARY

Pinna
    - defcts may be associated with bad development of inner structures
      of the ear.
    - amplifies sounds in speech range ~2kHz

EAM
    - wax, narrow canals,

Canal
    - Exostoses (bone bumps from cold water (scuba divers, swimmers)
    - wax buildup can block ear or make impressions difficult
    - foreign bodies

TM (Tympanic membrane)
    - perforations
    - cholesteatoma (white smelly lump eating through TM)
    - otosclerosis (chalky white stuff on TM)
    - All the landmarks
        - Cone of light (aims towards person's chin)
        - handle of maleus
        - anulus (outer rim)
        - pars flaccida (top part)
        - pars tensa (main part)
        - colour and appearance of TM (from observations of clients)

Ossicles
    - Maleus, incus, stapes
    - discontinuities
    - stapes fixation (surgery =stapedectomy)

Eustacean tube
    - keeps middle ear pressure equalised
    - blockage =eustacean dysfunction
    - blockage causes negative pressure on tympanogram (type C)

Oval window
    - stapes attaches here to cochlea

Cochlea
    - blunt end at stapes, pointy end at tip of coil
    - high frequencies at blunt end
    - low frequencies at pointy end
    - filled with fluids: perilymph, ectolymph
    - hair cells sense at different frequencies
    - outer hair cells process sound
    - inner cells transmit sound to nerve
    - presbycousis = age-related hearing loss

Acoustic nerve
    - eighth cranial nerve
    - acoustic neuroma